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ЖРД США, история разработки, конструкция, отработка и т. п.

Сообщений 1 страница 19 из 19

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Существует мнение, что необходимо начать сбор и анализ информации по ЖРД США.

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S-3 (LR-79) Rocket Engine
The S-3 rocket was used on the Thor and Jupiter rockets. The military designation for the S-3 was LR-79.

S-3 engine on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force.
(Photos: Richard Kruse, 2007)
https://historicspacecraft.com/rocket_engines.html

https://historicspacecraft.com/Photos/LR-79_Engine_Dayton_2007_RK_1.jpg

https://historicspacecraft.com/Photos/LR-79_Engine_Dayton_2007_RK_2.jpg

https://historicspacecraft.com/Photos/LR-79_Engine_Dayton_2007_RK_3.jpg

https://historicspacecraft.com/Photos/LR-79_Engine_Dayton_2007_RK_4.jpg

https://historicspacecraft.com/Photos/LR-79_Engine_Dayton_2007_RK_5.jpg

https://historicspacecraft.com/Photos/LR-79_Engine_Dayton_2007_RK_6.jpg

https://historicspacecraft.com/Photos/LR-79_Engine_Dayton_2007_RK_7.jpg

https://historicspacecraft.com/Photos/LR-79_Engine_Dayton_2007_RK_8.jpg

П. С. Все картинки в хорошем качестве.

4

Что ж, продолжим.

S-3 on display at the Udvar-Hazy Center.
(Photos: Richard Kruse, 2008 )
https://historicspacecraft.com/rocket_engines.html

https://historicspacecraft.com/Photos/Rocket/S-3_UH_2008_RK_1.jpg

https://historicspacecraft.com/Photos/Rocket/S-3_UH_2008_RK_2.jpg

https://historicspacecraft.com/Photos/Rocket/S-3_UH_2008_RK_3.jpg

https://historicspacecraft.com/Photos/Rocket/S-3_UH_2008_RK_4.jpg

https://historicspacecraft.com/Photos/Rocket/S-3_UH_2008_RK_5.jpg

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Продолжаем продолжать.
Информация с сайта героикреликс. 

S-3D ROCKET ENGINE OVERVIEW
The S-3D was an early rocket engine used in the Jupiter missile; a modified version of this engine was also used on the Thor missile.

The S-3D dates back to 1954, when Rocketdyne (at the time the "Propulsion Division of North American Aviation" ) received an Army Ordnance contract to design an engine in the 135,000 pound range. This engine was to utilize the basic components and principles of the Atlas propulsion systems, which had been under development for several years.

In November of 1955, this engine was repurposed for the Jupiter and Thor and uprated to generate 150,000 pounds of thrust and sustain an increased operation time. The S-3D, in both its Jupiter and Thor incarnations, was to use a nearly-identical thrust chamber as the LR-89 (Atlas booster) rocket engine. As compared to the LR-89, the turbopumps and propellant high-pressure ducts were rearranged on the S-3D to be mounted on the engine's thrust frame assembly.

The S-3D burned RP-1 and LOX to develop 150,000 lb for a nominal duration of 178 seconds. The engine was gimballed and regeneratively cooled. It utilized two centrifugal turbopumps which were driven by a gas generator, also burning the engine propellants. A tubular-steel thrust frame provided a mount for most engine components, including the gas generator, turbopumps, and lubrication system.

With all engine components, including the turbopumps, mounted on the thrust frame, forward of the gimbal plane, the S-3D required flexible high-pressure ducts to deliver the propellant to the thrust chamber and injector. The S-3D was later simplified and uprated to serve as the basis for the H-1 rocket engine for the Saturn I. One of the changes was to move most engine components, including the turbopumps, onto the thrust chamber itself. With the the turbopumps on the same side of the gimbal block as the thrust chamber, much shorter, less-flexible high-pressure ducts could be used.

The S-3D was initially manufactured at Rocketdyne's Canoga Park facility, but in the fall of 1958, production was transferred to its Neosho, Missouri plant.

For additional information on the S-3D, see the Development of the Rocket Engine for the Jupiter Missile. See also my photos of the S-3D engine at the Air Force Museum and photos of an earlier model of this engine, the S-3 rocket engine, at the Udvar-Hazy Center. For information on how the S-3D was mounted on the Jupiter missile, see myJupiter tail unit page.

Here is a diagram of the S-3D with callouts:
http://heroicrelics.org/info/s-3d/s-3d-overview/s-3d-with-callouts.jpg

The engine components identified here include

Turbopump
Gas Generator
Lube Oil Tank
Heat Exchanger
Thrust Chamber
Frame Assy
Dual Solenoid Control Valve
Heater Junction Box
Exhaust System

A hastily-erected black cloth serves as a backdrop for the engine in this photo, although some of the manufacturing floor is still visible in the background:

Jupiter missile S-3D rocket engine on dolly

Click image for a 5697x4246 pixel version of this image in a new window.
From the page 17 of Development of the Rocket Engine for the Jupiter Missile.
Scan and clean-up by heroicrelics.

Detailed comparisons of the engines used on the Thor versus the Jupiter are hard to come by. Some sources claim that the Jupiter and Thor engines were "similar in many respects," differing primarily in the more precise thrust control system of the Jupiter engine and the use of ground-mounted start tanks on the Jupiter rather than the engine-mounted Thor tanks (which were also used for vernier engine operation). While the same basic thrust chamber was used in Atlas booster (LR-89), Jupiter, and Thor engines, information on the more subtle differences between the engines is elusive.

There doesn't appear to be much agreement as to what to call the Thor engine, either (although, to be fair, the Thor had a long life and was upgraded several times). Although the occasional source calls it an S-3D (i.e., the same as the Jupiter engine) and the Air Force refers to both the Jupiter and Thor engines as the LR-79, I've also seen the Thor engine referred to as simply the S-3, the S-3E, various engines in the MB series (most commonly MB-3), and the YLR79-NA-13. I've also seen the engine, along with two LR-101 verniers, designated as the "LV-2A".

Rather than attempt to name the Thor engine, I'll just present the following photo, which depicts Redstone, Thor, and Jupiter engines. The Thor and Jupiter engines appear to be oriented differently, rotated with respect to each other, which hinders a direct comparison of the two engines.

http://heroicrelics.org/info/s-3d/s-3d-overview/s-3d-on-dolly.jpg

Detailed comparisons of the engines used on the Thor versus the Jupiter are hard to come by. Some sources claim that the Jupiter and Thor engines were "similar in many respects," differing primarily in the more precise thrust control system of the Jupiter engine and the use of ground-mounted start tanks on the Jupiter rather than the engine-mounted Thor tanks (which were also used for vernier engine operation). While the same basic thrust chamber was used in Atlas booster (LR-89), Jupiter, and Thor engines, information on the more subtle differences between the engines is elusive.

There doesn't appear to be much agreement as to what to call the Thor engine, either (although, to be fair, the Thor had a long life and was upgraded several times). Although the occasional source calls it an S-3D (i.e., the same as the Jupiter engine) and the Air Force refers to both the Jupiter and Thor engines as the LR-79, I've also seen the Thor engine referred to as simply the S-3, the S-3E, various engines in the MB series (most commonly MB-3), and the YLR79-NA-13. I've also seen the engine, along with two LR-101 verniers, designated as the "LV-2A".

Rather than attempt to name the Thor engine, I'll just present the following photo, which depicts Redstone, Thor, and Jupiter engines. The Thor and Jupiter engines appear to be oriented differently, rotated with respect to each other, which hinders a direct comparison of the two engines.

http://heroicrelics.org/info/s-3d/s-3d-overview/a-6-mb-3-s-3d.jpg


Картинки все кликабельные, открываются в большом размере.

Отредактировано C-300 (26.05.2019 14:24:57)

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У меня на мониторе ссылки п оцвету практически не отличаются по цвету от основного текста. А у вас?
Надо ли менять цвет текста ссылок?..

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Теплообменник С-3Д, предназначенный для нагрева тетраоксида азота - выработки газа наддува бака "О".

S-3D ROCKET ENGINE HEAT EXCHANGER
The S-3D rocket engine used a heat exchanger to use turbine exhaust gasses to heat and expand liquid oxygen and gaseous nitrogen to pressurize the oxidizer and fuel tanks, respectively.

Unfortunately, there's little detailed information on the Internet concerning the S-3D engine, so there's little information for me to pass along. The S-3D's heat exchanger is similar in concept to the H-1 engine's heat exchanger, although the latter's heat exchanger had two rows of coils and only converts LOX to GOX while the diagrams below depict three rows on the S-3D's heat exchanger. The S-3D heat exchanger was also a dual-pressurant system, including a facility for expanding nitrogen gas. The nitrogen subsystem was less elaborate than the LOX/GOX subsystem, consisting of little more than two tubes running the length of the heat exchanger, rather than using coils like the oxygen subsystem (presumably because the input gaseous nitrogen was at approximately ambient temperature while the LOX was at cryogenic temperatures).

I have two similar cut-away diagrams of the S-3D heat exchanger, the first in glorious color:
http://heroicrelics.org/info/s-3d/s-3d-heat-exchanger/s-3d-heat-exchanger-chrysler-color.jpg

The second diagram is less colorful, but has more dramatic shadows:
http://heroicrelics.org/info/s-3d/s-3d-heat-exchanger/s-3d-heat-exchanger-chrysler.jpg

In a Jupiter missile, the heat exchanger was mounted on the wall of the missile's aft skirt, midway between the turbine and the turbine exhaust port (the latter of which provided roll control for the missile). The turbine exhaust duct had bellows sections both forward and aft, presumably to allow for both thermal expansion and vibration of the flight.
--

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ПГС ЖРД С-3Д с сайта героикреликс.

http://heroicrelics.org/info/h-1/s-3d-vs-h-1/s-3d-vs-h-1-color.jpg

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Главный клапан горючего
http://s9.uploads.ru/t/0BhNG.png

https://www.flickr.com/photos/105282120 … 521340973/

Отредактировано C-300 (25.05.2019 23:15:34)

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C-300 написал(а):

меня на мониторе ссылки п оцвету практически не отличаются по цвету от основного текста. А у вас?Надо ли менять цвет текста ссылок?..

Спасибо за интересную информацию. Ссылки по цвету отличаются слабо, но разобрать можно.

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Вандерер написал(а):

Ссылки по цвету отличаются слабо, но разобрать можно.

Ок. Буду выделять их жирным - так виднее.

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THE S-3D VS. THE H-1 ROCKET ENGINE
When one reads about the H-1 rocket engine, it is often said that the the S-3D (Jupiter and/or Thor) engine was uprated from 150,000 lbs of thrust and "simplified" in order to produce the H-1. This page hopes to enumerate some of the ways in which the S-3D was simplified.

Reducing complexity reduces the number of parts required for an engine system; fewer, less-complex parts improves reliability (as there are few parts to fail).

http://heroicrelics.org/info/h-1/s-3d-vs-h-1/s-3d-vs-h-1-color.jpg
H-1 rocket engine heat exchanger cut-away

Click image for a 1504x1227 pixel version of this image in a new window.
Scan courtesy Dave Christensen
Cleanup by heroicrelics.

Although Rocketdyne was busy making engines for the Atlas, Jupiter, and Thor missiles in the late 1950s, it also recognized the value of pure research and development. A group of engineers began experimenting with a number of concepts, including the simplification of rocket engine subsystems, in an engine program named X-1. This program experimentally introduced a number of design features which would become standard in later engines.

The X-1 replaced the electrically-controlled pneumatic system for actuating valves on previous rocket engines with valves actuated by fuel: as the turbopump came up to speed, the buildup of fuel pressure was used to open the various propellant valves. This was referred to as a "pressure ladder sequence", and ensured that valves were actuated in the proper order and only when engine conditions warranted their actuation.

Earlier rocket engines had start tank systems, containing sufficient fuel and oxidizer to power the gas generator until the turbopumps could provide propellants for continued operation (bootstrapping the turbopumps). The X-1 introduced a solid-propellant gas generator (sometimes called a "spinner") to provide the initial turbine operation.

The H-1 used solid-propellant gas generator to bootstrap the engine. The SPGG cartridge was bolted to the liquid-propellant gas generator. The engine start signal ignited the SPGG's electrical initiators, starting the solid propellant grains burning, which in turn provided 4.68 pounds of gas per second for approximately one second. This spun the turbine, driving the turbopump until fuel control pressure opened the gas generator control valve. Fuel pressure was also used to actuate the main LOX valve and fuel additive blender (see below), and to rupture the hypergol cartridge burst diaphragms (see below).

As previous large Rocketdyne engines had been hydrocarbon-based, they relied on an ignition system to initiate main combustion. These igniters were sometimes mounted on the engine's injector (e.g., the Navaho engines) or were on a rod inserted into the thrust chamber (e.g., the Redstone engine). These ignition methods were cumbersome and the debris from the igniters had the potential to damage the thrust chamber cooling tubes or (for earlier engines) the jet vanes at the engine's exit planes. The X-1 introduced the use of a hypergolic igniter which, when delivered through the injector, provided spontaneous ignition.

The H-1 inherited the use of the hypergolic igniter. A six-cubic-inch cartridge of hypergolic fluid was inserted into a housing on the side of the thrust chamber which led to a manifold feeding igniter passages on the injector. As fuel pressure increased, it burst the diaphragms on the cartridge, releasing the triethyelaluminum (TEA), a pyrophoric (i.e., ignites spontaneously in the presence of oxygen) fluid, to the combustion chamber and initiating main combustion.

Rather than using oil stored in a separate tank to lubricate the turbopump gearbox, the X-1 used RP-1, blended with a small amount of lubricant additive, for this purpose. In addition to simplifying engine design, this also eliminated a potential source of contamination.

The H-1 incorporated this lubrication scheme. It used a fuel additive blender unit (FABU) to mix RP-1 from the fuel pump discharge with an additive variously described as RB0140-006 (Rocketdyne) or Oronite. The mixture was then introduced into the turbopump gearbox to lubricate and cool the gearbox components.

The H-1 had a number of additional simplifications over the S-3D. It mounted its turbopump on the thrust chamber (rather than on the missile body, as with the S-3D). This simplified system high-pressure plumbing, minimizing pressure drop. It also allowed the propellant high-pressure ducts to be very short and rigid, replacing the longer ducts which had to provide enough flexibility to allow for engine gimaballing.

The H-1, whose thrust control requirements were less rigid than the Jupiter (which required complex thrust controls to accurately deliver its payload to the target), calibrated its thrust via simple, fixed orifices.

Here is a somewhat more detailed (although less colorful) version of the diagram above:

H-1 rocket engine heat exchanger cut-away

http://heroicrelics.org/info/h-1/s-3d-vs-h-1/s-3d-vs-h-1.jpg
Click image for a 1314x760 pixel version of this image in a new window.
Scan courtesy the NASA History Office
Cleanup by heroicrelics.

Just over one year into the Saturn I program, the ABMA was already making suggestions to further simplify the H-1. In my "Saturn H-1 Engine Design Features" memo, there's a discussion about incorporating simplification features from what's referred to as "Engine 'X'", including elimination of the hypergolic ignition system, using the SPGG to ignite the main propellants; removing the FABU, simply using RP-1 to lubricate and cool the gearbox; and replacing the liquid propellant gas generator with an engine tap-off cycle (in which hot gasses from the combustion chamber are tapped off to power the turbine). None of these simplifications ever made it into the H-1.

Information on this page was taken from Rocketdyne: Powering Humans into Space, H-1 Rocket Engine Models H-1C and H-1D Technical Manual: Engine Data (located in the Saturn V Collection, Dept. of Archives/Special Collections, M. Louis Salmon Library, University of Alabama in Huntsville, which also makes this document available as a 14.4 megabyte PDF, and Stages to Saturn.

http://heroicrelics.org/info/h-1/s-3d-vs-h-1.html

Отредактировано C-300 (11.06.2019 20:10:41)

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мечтательно: даааа... О таком сайте по ЖРД на русском языке можно только мечтать!..

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А есть параметры кс жрд rs-68, j-2, rs-25? Интересно сравнить с рд-0120. Хотяб диаметр))

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Будда написал(а):

А есть параметры кс жрд rs-68, j-2, rs-25? Интересно сравнить с рд-0120. Хотяб диаметр))

По RS-68 у меня точно нет. Кстати, по нему сделал описание на основе открытых источников. Здесь выкладывать пока не буду - вдруг получится где-нибудь опубликоваться :)
По J-2 надо посмотреть.
Что касается RS-25 (SSME), то есть хорошее техописание, в том числе содержащее интересующую Вас информацию. Вот, скачать его можно отсюда: http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2011/ … TATION.pdf

Отредактировано C-300 (14.06.2019 18:17:08)

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Не знаю, зачем тут историю ворошить. Все описано в учебниках, изданиях ВИНИТИ, отраслевой периодике. Вот Добровольского, Алемасова книги переиздавались. В киоске МГТУ есть масса новых изданий. И все равно это общее - внешний вид, пневмогидросхемы. А что интересно? Ну как всегда распределение давления от бака и далее через всякие клапана, насосы, газогенераторы, турбины, камеры сгорания. Потом интересна сама головка камеры сгорания, конструкция форсунок, их расположение, дальнобойности, размещение и т.д.

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Сергей Подкорытов написал(а):

Не знаю, зачем тут историю ворошить.

Очевидно, потому, что:
1) История создания ЖРД США в отечественной литературе описана из рук вон плохо. Вы с ходу можете сказать, когда был создан макет F-1 - того самого, который отправил Армстронга на Луну?
2) Конструктивные решения ЖРД США отличаются от школы СССР. Понять почему, какие физические соображения заложены - вот задача этой темы.

Отредактировано C-300 (14.06.2019 22:14:42)

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Сергей Подкорытов написал(а):

Все описано в учебниках

далеко не всё.

Сергей Подкорытов написал(а):

изданиях ВИНИТИ

в Интернете не встречал, возможно, есть где-то в закрытых библиотеках.

Сергей Подкорытов написал(а):

отраслевой периодике

как минимум - гриф ДСП.

Сергей Подкорытов написал(а):

А что интересно?

Конструкция КС, насосов, ТНА. Материалы, из которых изготовлены основные агрегаты.
Вот вы с ходу готовы сказать - какова технология изготовления КС RS-25? А ведь она интереснейшая и отличается в корне от такой для КС ЖРД СССР.
вот поэтому и нужна эта тема.

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C-300 написал(а):

По RS-68 у меня точно нет. Кстати, по нему сделал описание на основе открытых источников. Здесь выкладывать пока не буду - вдруг получится где-нибудь опубликоваться
По J-2 надо посмотреть.
Что касается RS-25 (SSME), то есть хорошее техописание, в том числе содержащее интересующую Вас информацию. Вот, скачать его можно отсюда: http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2011/ … TATION.pdf

Отредактировано C-300 (Вчера 21:02:08)


Спасибо! Да действительно в файле есть ответы на мои вопросы, не думал что диаметр кс ссме всего 440 мм, по rs68 когда будете публиковаться скиньте ссылку пожалуйста))


Вы здесь » novosti-kosmonavtiki-2 » Космонавтика-ее история, назначение и перспективы. » ЖРД США, история разработки, конструкция, отработка и т. п.